Press release

acatech and DECHEMA present analysis of international hydrogen strategies

19 December 2022

acatech, the National Academy of Science and Engineering, and DECHEMA, the Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, compared national hydrogen strategies, hydrogen roadmaps and concept papers from 22 countries and regions published between 2017 and 2022. The analysis will be regularly supplemented and updated with further strategies in the future. Within the framework of these national hydrogen strategies, roadmaps and concept papers, various countries and regions have announced plans for the production and use of hydrogen.

acatech and DECHEMA examined the strategies of the following countries and regions (publication years are listed in parentheses): China (2017), Japan (2017), California (2018), South Korea (2019), Australia (2019), the Netherlands (2020), Germany (2020), Norway (2020), the European Union (2020), Portugal (2020), France (2020), Chile (2020), Spain (2020), Italy (2020), the USA (2020), Canada (2020), Hungary (2021), Poland (2021), the United Kingdom (2021), Russia (2021), Morocco (2021) and Czechia (2022). All strategies were developed before Russia’s war on Ukraine.

"The comparison of hydrogen strategies offers the opportunity to identify prioritised application areas, specific approaches and potential trading partners," summarises Andrea Lübcke, head of the H2-Compass project at acatech.


Focus on green hydrogen dominates the strategies studied

The strategy papers focus on electrolysers for hydrogen production, primarily on the basis of electricity from renewable energies. However, blue hydrogen is mentioned in some strategies as a temporary solution. Blue hydrogen is produced from fossil resources (e.g. coal or natural gas) by means of steam reforming or gasification. The resulting carbon dioxide (CO₂) is captured, stored, or used. "In light of Russia's war on Ukraine, it is not unlikely that European countries in particular will change their previous stance on blue hydrogen, as it can be assumed that the quantities of natural gas used for hydrogen production will not surpass current levels," says Jens Artz, head of the H2-Compass project at DECHEMA. Germany is planning to update its own hydrogen strategy.


Chile, Spain, Portugal and Morocco want to export green hydrogen

Due to favourable site conditions resulting from a high supply of renewable energies, Chile, Spain, Portugal and Morocco have announced their intentions to export green hydrogen (produced with green electricity via electrolysis). Australia, Canada and Norway state that they aim to export both green and fossil-based hydrogen. "As a country that will be dependent on hydrogen imports, Germany would do well to closely observe the developments in countries already planning to export green hydrogen," advises Andrea Lübcke.


Different strategies for hydrogen use

Many countries plan to use hydrogen in industry, in areas that already have a high demand for hydrogen and the necessary infrastructure. National strategies most often mention the chemical industry and refineries. In terms of heat and energy applications, the use of hydrogen or derivatives is mostly envisaged for the medium to long term.

In the transport sector, most countries aim to use hydrogen in the short to medium term in (heavy) goods transport and in bus or taxi fleets. In the passenger car sector, country strategies differ greatly: China and California have published dedicated strategies for the ramp-up of fuel cell vehicles. Japan, South Korea, the USA, Canada and the Netherlands also see an early use of hydrogen in private motorised transport. However, Germany, Norway, the European Union, France, Chile, Spain, Hungary, the United Kingdom and Morocco do not mention hydrogen cars in their strategies.


Great similarities in how national hydrogen economies are to be developed

The process of how a country builds its hydrogen economy is described similarly in many of the national strategies. 20 out of 22 strategies rely on government funding and 18 out of 22 on building international cooperation in terms of science and trade. A large proportion describe the need to build infrastructure and reduce production costs. Most also aim for uniform regulations and certificates.


The analysis is available for download below, currently in German only.

A new four-page factsheet entitled "Hydrogen in the building sector" is also available (in German) as of today:



About the Hydrogen Compass project

acatech and DECHEMA have been conducting the two-year H2-Compass project since June 2021. With the help of a meta-analysis, they are jointly developing an overview of paths to the hydrogen economy as well as corresponding options for action with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the H2-Compass organises a dialogue with stakeholders from science, business, politics, public administration and civil society in order to obtain their views and work towards a common vision of a hydrogen economy. The project results can be used by policymakers as the basis for a hydrogen roadmap. The H2-Compass project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Action.



Alena Müller

Alena Müller
Communications Officer, acatech

+49 30 2063096 33



H2-Compass is a project of acatech and DECHEMA. The project is funded by BMBF and BMWK.